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Learning Irish 9 Jan, 21:28
Website made by Davis that conjugates irregular verbs in dialectical forms
Learning Irish 9 Jan, 21:27
Dan repost: miseds
Learning Irish 28 Dec, 08:53
Dan repost: miseds
warning: requires a teacher
Learning Irish 28 Dec, 08:53
Dan repost: miseds
Learning Irish 22 Dec, 02:28
4. Prepositions not combining with personal pronoun
go (dtí) does not combine with pronouns. SOme others that don’t are gan, seachas. Generally, these don’t change the following noun, either. gan bróga. However, if it’s followed by article, the normal rules apply. gan an bhean.
Learning Irish 22 Dec, 02:28

1. Future Tense of the Regular Verb
(i) Form used with noun or pronoun (corresponding to beidh)

So this is the most basic type of verb for the future tense. It expresses “will x” by itself, nothing too complicated.

There are two types of verbs in Irish, those with one syllable and those with two syllables. We’ll start with one syllable verbs, as they’re easier, in my opinion.

To form the future tense of these verbs, called first conjugation in many texts, you just add -f(a)idh. The -faidh form is used when the verb ends with a broad consonant, the -fidh form when it ends with a slender one. Some examples:

Bris  Brisfidh
féach  féachfaidh

If you have a verb that ends with -igh in this status, you drop the -gh and add the endings.

Now, on to the second one. These are generally verbs that are two syllables. I would say it wouldn’t be unfair to say most of these end with –(a)igh. So how do you form the future tense of those? Well, for the ones that end with –(a)igh, you drop it then add the proper ending: -óidh or -eoidh based on whether it ends with a broad (first ending) or slender (second) consonant.

salaigh  salóidh
coinnigh  coinneoidh

However, some are two syllables that don’t end with –(a)igh. Generally these verbs are similar to oscail and imir. In these, you drop the final vowel(s) and make them a single syllable. Then you add the ending

oscail = oscl + óidh = osclóidh
imir = imr + eoidh = imreoidh

(ii) Autonomous form

Thankfully these aren’t hard. For first type, you just use -f(e)ar, while for the second you use -ófar or eofar.

(iii) Pronunciation of verbs with roots ending in b, d, g, bh, mh
So the thing to learn here is that the “f” in the future tense devoices the proceeding consonant. So a sounds like /t/, comes like /p/. and both come to /f/.

So goidfidh would be pronounced like it was written goitfidh.

(iv) Direct relative
So Connacht Irish (and Donegal Irish) has a direct relative form for the future as well. It’s pretty easy. In type one verbs you just add –f(e)as. For type 2, you add -ós or -eos. This holds true in Donegal as well as in Connacht. In Munster you use the normal form of the future tense.

2. The preposition faoi
(i) Introduction
It means ‘under’ in the most basic sense, and causes lenition. Tá sé faoi chathaoir = It is under a chair

(ii) Prepositional pronouns
So, same as usual. I’ll use the original forms and the Connacht ones in parentheses where they differ

fúithi (fúithe)
fúibh (fúib)
fúthu (fúb)

Contrast forms are the same as the other prepositions we’ve covered.
(iii) Meaning of faoi
a. Under
The general base meaning. It has some others though
b. to express intent

So you can use faoi to express intent. Tá fúm filleadh ar Éirinn – I intend to return to Ireland. Tá fúithi gasúr a thogadh – She intends to raise a kid

c. (with bualadh) to express impact
Tá sé ag bualadh fúm – It is hitting against me.

d. To express motion (in certain phrases)
See the ones in the book. Mainly Tá siúl faoi (He is going fast), tá fuadar faoi (He is in a hurry), tá fás faoi (It is growing)

e. in some adverbial phrase
Again, just see the book. Examples include faoi smacht, faoi bhláth, faoi lántseol, faoi bhealach

(iv) Secondary meaning ‘around, about’
In Connemara especially, faoi has taken over the function of the preposition um. This is particularly true in Connacht and Donegal, though I think Munster still often uses um.

Tá mé ag caint fút = I am talking about you
Tá sé ag magadh fuithi = He is joking with her

Also used in some adverbial phrases to mean ‘around’ or ‘by’, etc. Examples include faoi Nollaig, faoi Cháisc, faoi Bhealtaine, faoi Shamhain, faoi seo, faoi láthair, faoi dheireadh, faoin tuath/tír

3. The preposition go (dtí)
So this is a way to say ‘to’ in expressing motion. Tá mé ag dul go hÉirinn. go dtí is used with definite nouns, whereas go is used with place names without an article (it prefixes an h to vowels) – go hAlbain. It can be used in adverbial phrases too, go maidin, lán go béal, etc.
Learning Irish 9 Dec, 01:51
(ii) To express ownership

So, just like *bí ... ag* can express possession, in Irish you express ownership with a phrasal verb. In this case, you use *is* and *le*. When asking a question, you always use the emphatic/contrastive form, but you answer with the ordnary form.

*Ar (An) leatsa na gunnaí?*
*is liom*

5. Use of *é* in responses

So when you have a response to something that involves indirect speech, you can either respond with the indirect speach particle and the verb, or just substitute *é*

*Is dóigh go mbeidh tú ansin*

could be responded to with

*Is dóigh go mbeidh* or *Is dóigh é*

6. Use of directional adverbs with *le*

Basically you can use the preposition *le* with adverbs of direction and the verb is implied. Sometimes, the plural imperative ending -aigí is added. So you can say *Amach leat!* (Out with you). Or things like *Imeacht(aigí) libh* — Away with you! Shoo!
Learning Irish 9 Dec, 01:51

1. Relative of the Copula

(i) Direct Relative

(a) Positive:

This one is easy — just use *is* again. *Is í sin an bhean is maith leis* — That's the woman he likes

(b) Negative

Use *nach* instead. *Sin é an fear nach maith léi* — That's the man she doesn't like.

(ii) Indirect Relative

(a) Positive

Use *ar* instead of *is* here.

*Sin é an fear ar maith leis an bia* — That's the man who likes the food

(b) Negative:

Once again we use *nach*. easy, right?

*Sin é an fear nach maith leis gasúir* - That's the man who doesn't like children

2. Future of the Copula

The copula has no specfic future form, so you can use te present tense forms to express a future meaning. It looks like these are really only used with adjectives and a temporal phrase. I'm not certain, but I don't think you can use it to say tings like "He will be a doctor in a year."

3. The preposition *le*

(i) Introduction

The preposition *le* generally prefixes and h to a noun beginning with a vowel, though this is rarely said in speech. So you'll write *le hÚna*, but *le Úna* will be said (and sometimes written). Before *an*, it becomes *leis* giving *leis an madra*, for example.

(ii) Prepositional pronouns

As usualy, the ordinary form will be out, with the Connacht form in parentheses where it differs

*léi* (*léithe*)
*libh* (*lib*)
*leo* (*leob*)

(iii) Basic meaning 'with'

The most basic meaning of *le* is 'with': *Tá an gasúr liom* - the kid is with me

More idiomatically, it can be eused to express:

(a) 'with the motion of'

Basically things like where English would use "He moved with the crowd" or "It went with the current"

*Thit an bheilleog leis an ngaoth* - The leaf fell with the wind

(b) 'at the same time as'

Makes sense if you read it literally: "He was here with the day" = "He was here at the same time as the day (at daybreak)."

*Chuaigh sí abhaile leis an oíche* = She went home at nightfall

(c) 'with', 'as a result of'

This is basically the English 'with' in these sense of 'because'

It's used in the idiom: *Tá mé spalptha leis an tart* - I'm dying of thirst (literally parched with the thirst). Also *tinn le himní* - sick with worry, etc.

(d) 'away', 'continuing'

Basically like 'work away' or 'continuing to work'. Can be used with any verbal noun:

*Tá Seán ag rith leis* - Seán is (just) running away (i.e. Seán is just continuing to run)

(iv) Secondary meaning: "to":

(a) 'To', 'for the purpose'

This usage involves a verbal noun or a verbal noun phrase. Note that if you have a preposition following *le* here, it does not change to the combined form, but it *does* prefix "n-" to a vowel:

*Tá mé anseo le n-í (len í) a shábháil* - I am here to save her.

(b) Likewise, it can express 'to', 'due to be'.

This one also prefixes n- to it.

*Tá an bia sin le n-ithe* — That food is to be eat

*Caife le n-imeacht* - Coffee for taking away (Take away coffee); this is actually on a sign of a cafe in Carraroe

(v) Other idiomatic meanings:

(a) 'to', 'towards'

Such as who you're showing niceness to, or what you're looking forward to, etc.

*Tá éad agam leat* - I'm jealous of you
*Tá sé gnaoiúil leis an ngasúr" - He's generous to the kid

(b) 'to', 'against'

With direction, really.

*Tá mo dhroimse leis an gclaí* — My back is to the stonewall

*Tá droim Cháit leis an mballa* - Cáit's back is to the wall

I'm pretty sure this is used literally, and not idiomatically int he English "My back's against the wall"

(c) Duration

So *le* can be used for 'for' when talking about times. However, this only happens when the time period is on-going.

*Tá mé i Meiriceá le dhá mhí* - I've been in America two months/ I'm in America for two months.

4. Idiomatic uses of the copula and *le*

(i) To express 'it seems'

These are basically examples like *is maith le X Y* to express 'x likes y'. It can be used with several other adjectives. Can be expressed in things like "Isn't it worthwhile to Cáit", or "It's likely to Cáit", etc. See the list in the book for the several main adjectives
Learning Irish 8 Dec, 22:27
Dan repost: miseds
Tá Gearóid ag goil soir amach — Gearóid is going away off to the east (if he gets a teaching job in Japan)

(d) When an adverb implying motion or direction is used, the verb can be left out and is implicitly understood.

Beidh mé aniar amáireach — I'll be coming from the west tomorrow.

(e) It can be used with "taobh" too, to produce things like "An taobh istigh", or "an taobh ó dheas". Note that this can only be used witht he stationary forms, so you can't say *"An taobh isteach"

(f) Amach and suas cam be used with certain verbs to express the completion of an action. See the two examples.

4. Numbers above 10

Basically, you usse the same structure as before, you just add the 10s number after the noun. Ifthe noun ends with a vowel, lenite "déag" (excep tin the case of "bliana"). Likewise if it's "scóir".

Connacht Irish still likes to use a vestigismal system, such as saying "dhá fhichead" for 40. Please familiarize yourself with the examples here.
Learning Irish 8 Dec, 22:27
Dan repost: miseds

1. Comparative Degress of Adjective

(i) Comparative

To express the comparative form in Irish, you must use *níos* (from ní is — thing that is). In the past tense *ní ba* is technically required and often still seen in older writings. However, this has fallen out of usage in speech.

(ii) Superlative

To form the superlative, is is used before the adjective. "Sin í an bhean is airde". "Is é Seán an Ghaeilgeoir is fearr".

Literally translates to something like "That is the woman that is tallest"

(iii) Forms of the adjective

Thankfully, while there is often a different form of the adjective used for the comparative and superlative, they are the same to each other.

For two-syllable adjectives that end in a vowel, nothing changes. Dorcha, Níos Dorcha, is dorcha

One-syllable adjectives with a final vowel, take -(o)cha .

Buí, níos búiocha, is buíocha

In two or three syllable ones the syllable is lengthened:

te, níos teocha, is teocha

(iv) Adjectives with irregular comparative forms

See the list here. Perhaps the most common would be maith > fearr, dona > measa, mór > mó, beag > lú, fada > foide. But they're all important.

2. Use of "chomh" with adjectives

(i) With le

This is how you use the as X as structure. The normal adjective is used here.

Tá Z comh X le Y:

Z is as X as Y.

Tá sé chomh glic le sionnach — He's as sly as a fox.

(ii) With _is_ followed by a direct relative clause.

This is how you do it if you want to express a verb. So, "he was as happy as her"

Bhí sé chomh sásta is a bhí sise.

Here "is" is a shortened form of "agus". You can also hear "Bhí sé chomh sásta agus a bhí sise".

A common one might be "chomh mait agus is féidir" — as good as possible.

(iii) With *sin*

Comh X sin is basically "That X" or "So x". If using it in "so", *go/nach* are used.

An bhfuil sé chomh dona sin? - Is it that bad?

(iv) With céanna

chomh X céanna is to express "just as X".

Tá Davis chomh maith céanna — Davis is just as good.

(v) As exclamation

can be used to exclaim similar to "How X Y is"

Chomh ramhar le Santa — How fat Santa is!

(vi) In questions

When you want to express 'How X' something is, you have to use *chomh* in a question, with *cé*

*Cé chomh ard le Cáit* - How tall is Cáit?

Similar, if you want to use a verb, you need *is* and the relative clause:

*Cé chomh fada is atá tú ag foghlaim na Gaeilge* - How long have you been learning Irish?

3. Adverbs of Direction and Position

Irish has several adverbs that are used for direction and position, depending on where the speaker is. And, what's more, Irish distinguishes between being up, moving up, and coming from up.

Tá mé ag goil suas — I am going up (say, the stairs)
Tá spéir thuas — The sky is up
Tá mé ag teacht anuas — I am coming down (from up).

This holds for several distinctions. Please see the table and practice these. They can be quite difficult. Even I'm not 100% on them.

(ii) Adverbs ó thuaidh and ó dheas

Generally, ó thuaidh can function in the place of all three of te normal split. So it can mean 'going north', 'in the north', or 'coming from the north'. Same of ó dheas, except with 'south' instead of north. However, when they're used as adjectives in set phrases, aduaidh and aneas are used. See the examples here.

(iii): Usage

(a) So, where as English would generally use 'up' and 'down' the road, Irish tends to use the actual directions.

Síos is used for 'north', however, and 'suas' for south.

Tá sé ag goil síos an bóthar == He is going down the road == He is going north along the road.

Tá sí ag goil soir an bóthar == She is going eastwards along the road.

(b) See the examples here. It can be used to mean things like "Talk to the man inside" — Labhair leis an fear istigh. Or "Talk to the man who is coming inside" - Labhair leis an fear isteach. There is an implicit relative clause and such.

(c) Amach/amuigh can be combined with siar/thair to give a greater distance. I wouldn't be surprised if this can be done with thoir and soir as well.
Learning Irish 1 Dec, 18:51
Dan repost: miseds

1. Indirect Relative Clauses

So these are the other types of relative clauses in Irish. these use _a_ (in the present) and the -dependent- form of the verb, causing eclipse. They are used generally when:

(i) The clause contains a preposition

So if you want to say "The man who has the child". This would use a preposition in Irish, so you'd use the indirect relative clause.

So: An fear a bhfuil an gasúr aige.

Or, An fear ag a bhfuil an gasúr

(ii) They're also used if the clause is a genitive relation.

This is basically English 'whose'

"I see the man whose car is new."

Feicim an fear a bhfuil a charr nua

(iii) If the clause refers to:

(a) time

So, if you have time int eh clause, you lean towards the indirect relative clause

Sin é an lá a raibh tú anseo.

(b) A reason

Same as time, if it's describing a 'reason'. So, fáth, údar, etc.

Sin é an t-údar a raibh sise ansin.

(c) the word "áit"

Sin é an áit a bhfuil Seán

2. Double Indirect Relative

Much like with the direct relative clause, fi you have words that are follwed generally by "go/nach", you instead use another indirect relative clause.

An bhfuil an leabhar ar an mbord a sílim a bhfuil sé air?

Here you have your first indirect relative with "a sílim ..." The second comes with changing hte "go" of sílim to "a"

3. Some idioms combining ag and ar

Read this section. It gives some nice idioms uses "ag" and "ar". Really handy and will make your Irish seem more robust.

4. The preposition "as"

(i) Introduction

It means 'out of', basically. It does nothing by itself, but eclipses with a following article:

Is as Meiriceá mé
Is as an gCeathrú Rua é Seán.

(ii) Prepositional forms

Same as before, I'll include the COnnacht spelling in () if different

asat (asad)
asti (aiste)
asainn (asainn)
asaibh (asaí)
astu (astab)

(iii) Meaning of as:

well, as I said, it's basic meaning is 'out of' — "Tóig an leabhar aníos as an mála"

Can also be used idiomatically for:

(a) to denote 'out of a material', as in, what you mae it out of.

Déanta as adhmad — made of wood

(b) Express 'out of', as a result of state of mine

"as fear" - out of anger

(c) To express 'from'

So when you're coming from a place, you use 'as' in Irish.

Tá mé ag teacht as Baile Átha Cliath (Bleá Cliath)

(d) to express 'of, from, out of' (smell, noise, movement)

used to express were a noise, smell or movement is coming from.

- Tá baladh as an bhfear sin — That man smells

(e) To express 'out, off'

Tá an tine as - the fire is out
Cas as an TV - Turn off the TV

(f) with féin to mean 'alone'

Tá mé as féin anois

(g) In certain adverbial expressions

Two mentioned here are "as cuma" = out of shape, and "as marc" = off target, wrong

(h) with 'a chéile' to express 'consecutive, in a row, asunder, apart'

Bhuaigh an fhoireann an corn trí bliana as a chéile - The team won the cup three years in a row

Tá sé ag titim as a chéile - It's falling apart

(iv) Idiomatic use with the copula

This is the example I used earlier. In Irish, you don't say people are 'from' a place. Instead, they are 'out of' a place. It's common for non-native speakers to get this right in the simple "I am from X" sentences, but they often mess it up in sentences like "I have a friend from X who said". Please don't — always use "as"

"Is as X mé/thú/srl" It's just how you express where you are from. "Cé as thú?" - is the question

5. Questions with prepositions:

You use cé and the follow it with the masculien third form of hte preosition:

Cé air a bhfuil an leabhar
Cé leis thú? (Very common in Connemara)
Cé aige a bhfuil an teach sin?
Learning Irish 28 Nov, 20:04
Dan repost: miseds

1. The preposition ar

(i) Introduction

It's basically used for 'on'. It causes lenition by itself, and an eclipse with the article -- "ar bhord" but "ar an mbord". Certain adverbial phrases use it without the 'on' meaning, and don't eclipse - ar fad, ar cuairt, ar buille, ar bord (on board), etc.

(ii) Prepoisitional Pronouns

Like mist Irish prepositions, it changes form when followed by a pronoun. I'll include the standard spellings, and the Connacht ones in parentheses where they differ

uirthi (ortha)
oraibh (oraí)
orthu (orthab)

As O'Siadhail notes, ar and air are pronounced the same. This is a feature of Connacht Irish, where the masculine third person singular takes the place of the default form of the preposition. Another example is "uaidh" instead of "ó" The contrastive forms and such follow the general usage of 'ag' - See lesson 15.

(iii) Meanngs if "ar"

On: I've already mentioned this one.

(a) To wear, have on:

Mirriors the English translation decently well -- Tá cóta orm (I have a coat on/I'm wearing a coat).

(b) to have a natural aspect, feature, or appearance

Certain features and stuff are *ar* someone in Irish. One big example is "gruaig". You wouldn't say "Tá gruaig fhada agam" for "I have long hair" but rather, "Tá gruaig fhada orm". It can be used with appearances in the weather too "Tá báisteach air" - it looks like rain

(c) Emotions of physical state (incl. disease) or estimation

This is another spot where Irish really differs from English, and you'll often see a lot of people messing up on. Instead of using an adjective to describe the state of someone, Irish prefers to use a noun with ar. So, instead of saying "I am angry", Irish would literally say "Anger is on me"

I don't want to go over the whole list, but please see this section in O'Siadhail.

(d) to have a name, a price

So a very Connemara way of introducing yourself involves "air". Cén t-ainm atá ort (What is your name, lit what name is on you). "Davis atá orm" (My name is Davis, lit. (it is) Davis that is on me).

It can also be used for pirce: "Punt atá ar an leabhar seo" -- This book costs a pound (lit. it is a pound that this book costs)

(e) To have to do something

One way Irish can express necessity is with the phrasal verb "bí ar" (tá ar in the present). This then uses a verbal noun structure:

Tá ar Kaitiye ithe -- Kaitiye has to eat
Tá ar Neil bia a ullmhú - Neil has to prepare food

(f) To have or do something to one's disadvantage

This is something that English doesn't have, and that I truly only understood this past summer. Basically, if something is done to the disadvantage of someone, you can include that with "ar". Apart from the examples in the book, one I heard this summer was:

"An bhfuil mé sa mbealach orthaí?" We were watching a Galway hurling match at the pub, and the person was asking if he was in our way. Notice the "orthaí" denoting that it was 'y'all' (there were two of us watching)

(g) (adverbially) to describe a state:

See the examples here. Another example is "Tá sé ar scoil" = He is at school (i.e. he is attending school). Maybe Seán can answer if there'd be a difference between "He is at school" = He is attending school and "He is at school" = he is visiting the school but not attending... say, picking up his kid.

ar maidin is another one used for in the morning/this morning/etc based on context

(h) to strengthen the imperative of verbs expressing a continued action

A few verbs and "quasi-imperatives" can use ort/oraibh to strenghten it.

Fan ort! Wait (will you!)
Foighid ort! (Be patient).

2. Ag cur ar 'causing'

So, you can use 'cur' (the verbal noun of 'cuir') to say that something is 'causing' you to be something.

Tá tárt orm -- I'm thirst
Tá an t-usice sin ag cur tárt orm -- That water is making me thirsty (lit. That water is putting thirst on me).

This also works with using "cuir" as a verb. -- Cuireann sé sin fearg orm (That (habitually) makes me angry)
Learning Irish 21 Nov, 16:38
Dan repost: miseds

1. Prepositional Pronouns: Ag

We're finally getting into the first of the 'prepositional pronouns', that is, the inflected prepositions that Irish has. We're starting with 'ag' (at). I'm only going to give the ordinary form, it's up to y'all to learn the contrast, emphasis, and emphatic contrastive forms.

* agam/am 'at me'
* agat/ad 'at you'
* aige 'at him'
* aici 'at her'
* againn/ainn 'at us'
* agaibh/agaí 'at you (pl)'
* acu/acab 'at them'

The forms after the slashes are probably the most common, with the others being more formal/standardized.

(ii) Usage

Can be used to express 'have'. In Irish, you don't have something, it is 'at you'. Comes after the subject of the sentence -- "Tá cótá agam" 'I have a coat'. Also used with some other meanings, see text.

(iii) Word order

Read the description here. If it's the ordinary form, adverbs come before. Otherwise, after.

2. Meanings of 'ag'

(i) 'At'

Simple explanation here. It maens 'at' However, it can also mean 'have' or 'have an ability' -- Níl ceol agam -- I don't have musical ability.

(ii) Some other meanings

(a) 'to'

So, really, what's happened here is a collapse of prepositions. 'chuig' has collapsed (or been supplanted by) 'ag'. It works only in this dialect, afaik.

(b) 'of' (a person) 'for' (person/thing)

See the examples. But it would be used where English would use 'of' in the sence of 'It's nice of you to do that', etc.

(c) Quantity

Usually comes after certain words, signifying quantity.

Tá roint acu anseo -- Some of them are here.

3. Use of Seo/sin with 'amsa 'adsa, etc.

It can alos be used to express possession. Just look through the examples. I'm not sure if it's more common or less common than the actual possessive adjectives.
Learning Irish 17 Nov, 18:02
Dan repost: miseds

1. The preposition "ag" with verbal noun

Alright, so we've finally hit a really big topic. How to use "ag" with the verbal noun. This is something a lot of non-natives mess up on, myself included even still.

(i) In progressive constructions

So oftentimes, the 'ag' + VN structure is used to denote the English "progressive". So it's used for things like "They are playing cards." It /g/ is only pronounced before a vowel (and I've often heard the a dropped during that). So you get sentences like:

Tá sé a' bualadh an chait (He is hitting the cat)


Tá sé (a)g imirt peile (He is playing Gaelic)

Some set phrases are lenited, such as "Tá sé ag fáil bháis" = He is dying

(ii) After certain verbs

So after certain verbs, usually those of perception, motion, or ones marking the beginning/duration of the action, *ag* is still used, evne when English wouldn't use the -ing form.

See the samples given in the book. It's also worth noting here that "ag goil" can be used for the English "going to" or "about to" (there are other ways to say that, though).

2. Use of a (+ lenition) with verbal noun

So if the direct object of the verbal noun proceeds the verbal noun, *a* + lenition is used. This is something else people mess up on, especially with question words!

So "What are you doing" would ***not*** being "Céard atá tú ag déanamh". why not? Because the direct object of "doing" is "céard" which appears -before- the verbal noun. So it'd be "Céard atá tú a dhéanamh"

3. Verbal noun with a pronoun object

So, the *ag + VN* structure ***cannot*** have a pronomial object. (The reason has to do with the genitive and such, but we won't talk about that here). So what do you do instead? Well, it's quite simple. You go --before-- the VN and add "do" (pronounced "go") and the correct --possessive pronoun--. "do a" becomes "dhá", and "do ár" is "dhár" (except, since ár is pronounced as "a" in connemara, it becomes "dhá" in speech)

But, really, in Connemara, it's ot that hard. Why? Because only two have unique forms in speech -- do mo and do do. All the rest would be pronounced "dhá", because of how the possessives are pronounced, even if they're written differently.

But some examples: "He is eating it." A lot of people (including a lot of "fluent" speakers) would say *"Tá sé ag ithe é"

No. You can't have that. Since it's "é" though, you know that the possessive is "a". So you put that after "do" but before the VN:

"Tá sé do a ithe". And you also know that "do a" becomes "dhá" in Connemara. Leaving you with:

"Tá sé dhá ithe".

If you wish to add contrast, you do it the same way as normal for possessives (Tá sé do m'ithesa -- He is eating --me--)

See the book for more examples, and please ask me if you have any questions. This is a very common feature, and I want to make sure y'all understand it.

(ii) Passive construction

This can also be used passively. How do you do that? You just put the correct form of the pronoun/noun used in the sentence before the VN:

Tá mé do mo bhualadh -- I'm being hit
Tá an scoil dhá thóigeáil -- The school is being built


4. Formation of adverbs

Adverbs are very easy to form. Just but "go" in front of the adjective. If it starts with a vowel, you add "h" to the start of the word.

When two are used together, you can drop "go", as in the example in the book.

5. Personal Numbers

So Irish is weird. It has several different ways of doing numbers. Here we'll talk about the personal ones.

1. Duine amháin
2. Beirt
3. Triúr
4. Ceathrar
5. Cúigear
6. Seisear
7. seachtar
8. Ochtar
9. naonúr
10. Deichniúr

You do -not- have to use a noun after these if you're just talking about "people". A noun that follows comes in the plural form, except for set phrases. It's also worth noting that "beirt" is a feminine noun. Above 10, you use normal numbers.

For thoes interested, this originally comes from constructions such as "trí fhear", etc.
Learning Irish 12 Nov, 04:27
Dan repost: miseds

1. Verbal noun

Ah, the verbal noun. This is a beauty. Perhaps my second favourite thing in Irish, after relative clauses.

(i) Positive

Here the verbal noun is just used by itself. It can used to convey the infinitive in Irish (as well as other things, but we won't talk about those yet)>

Ní an gasúr in an léamh -- The child can't read
Tá mé sásta pósadh

Three of them: goil (go), tíocht/teacht (come) and bheith (be) are proceeded by "a" whhich lenites. "Tá sé in ann a thíocht" (he is able to come). It's unstressed and easily disappears in native speech.

(ii) Negative:

Here, you just use "gan" before it.

Tá mé sásta gan pósadh -- I am happy not to marry.

(iii) Direct object

If the infinitive would have a direct object in English, it comes __before__ the verbal noun in Irish, followed by an unstressed "a" (though in the book I'm reading this "a" is often dropped".

Tá mé sásta iasc a ithe -- I am happy to eat fish

(iv) Usage of ordinary noun

And, since these are all nouns, they can be used as such.

Ceol agus ól -- Music and drinking

2. Seo, sin, siúd 'this here/that there is'

(i) Statement

Seo/sin/siúd can be used as a copular phrase. You need to use "é/í" before a definite article, as usual. It's an implied copula.

"Sin cathaoir"
"Sin í chathaoir"

(ii) -- (vi) Negation and questions, indirect speech, and 'if'clauses

In the negative and questions for you use take off the "s". h is prefixed after "ní"

Ab 'in cathaoir? - Is that a chair?

(vi) Particular expressions

Some of these fixed expressions use é regardless of noun gender.

(v) Summary table

Just look at this and learn it
Learning Irish 10 Nov, 01:19
Dan repost: miseds

1. Direct relative clauses

So there are two types of relative clauses in Irish - direct and indirect. We're learning about the direct one. This is generally used when English would use "who(m), that which". Another way to think of when to use the direct relative clause is when the thing before the clause is the direct object or the subject of the following clause.

i.e. "I see the woman who is happy" can be written as: I see the woman. She is happy. It's clear that the woman is the subject of the second clause, so you use a direct relative clause.

Another example: "I hear the cow that the man bought." This could be broken into I hear the cow. The man bought it. Here cow is clearly the direct object, so you use the direct relative clause.

The direct relative clause is "a" (schwa) and lenites the verb forms following it. There are special relative clause forms in the present (habitual) and future: a bhíonns and a bheas. These are very common. You ight sometimes see "a bheas" written as "a bheidh's". It has a special form with tá as well, written together = atá.

So, to use the sentences above:

Feicim an bhean atá sásta.
Cloisim an bó a cheannaigh an fear

(ii) Negative

The negative is used by "nach", which causes an eclipse and is followed by the dependent form of the verb.

Feicim an bhean nach bhfuil sásta
Feicim an bhean nach raibh sásta

(iii) Double direct relative

If you're in a direct relative clause and the following form would normally use go/nach, you use another direct relative clause instead. See the example here.

(iv) Usage

Apart from being used for "who(m), that, and which", it is also used after certain question words and other conjunctions that contain the copula, such as cé/céard/Cén/chom luath agus is/mar and after other conjunctions that don't use it, such as "nuair"

2. Pronouns standing alone

you must use the emphatic forms. Normal objective (disjunctive) forms can't be used.

3. Prefix adjectives:

(i) Adjectives given primary stress

A certain few adjectives are prefixed to nouns. All of these cause lenition if possible. Some include: sean, droch, and dea-

(ii) Double stress

an- can be prefixed to nouns to mean 'good/excellent' of the noun "An-oíche a bhí ann" - it was an excellent night

Some come before adjectives, such as an-, fíor, barr, deá, etc. Aon comes before the noun as well, and means 'any'.

(iii) Spelling

Read here for spelling conventions.

(iv) Adjectives ending with n

Basically, treat the ponunciation as you would the with "an"

d and t resist lenition, as does s, though a t is frequently inserted.

4. Feminine of reference

Like in English, certain nouns are always feminine, even if they're masculine in Irish.

(i) Modes of conveyance, machines, containers

Bád being a very common one

(ii) Certain animals

Capall, francach

(iii) Certain garmets

Caipín, geansaí for example

(iv) Leabhar

Leahar is also exceptional in that it could be treated as a feminine noun and the adjective following be lenited.
Learning Irish 8 Nov, 01:48
Dan repost: miseds

1. The Copula (part 2)

(i) Indefinite predicate.

This is when you don't have a definite noun. The indefinite one comes right after the copula, with the rest of it after.

Is múinteoir mé; Is cainteoir dúchais é Sean, srl

See Lesson11 (search it with the hastag, or look in the Learning Irish Group that's pinned) for the VANTP rule that I think explains how to form the copula a lot better. I'm too lazy to re-copy it.

(ii) Response

For these you use "Is ea, Ní hea, ab ea etc." You can see the forms in the book.

(iii) Emphatic order

So the copula sentence can also be used to add emphasis to copular sentences. To do this you change the word your. "Is fear maith é" (He is a good man) to "Is maith an fear é" (He is a -good- man). The commonly said "maith fear" comes from this. A common one is "Is mór an truaí é"

To answer/affirm this, you use the preposition, as in 'Is deas' though 'is ea' can also be used.

2. Imperative of regular verbs

(i) Singular

Ain't nothin' to learn here. This is the dictionary form of the verb. Just use it as it is. "Dún an doras", "Oscail do chuid leabhartha" srl Read his notes about conjugation types though.

(ii) PLural

Add (a)igí or (a)ígí to the end of the verb. "Dúnigí an doirse." "Osclaígí bhur gcuid leabhartha"

(iii) Negative

Pretty simple. just add ná before the form. Prefix h to an initial vowel.

Ná dún an doras. Ná osclaígí bhur gcuid leabhartha

(iv) Contrast or emphasis

(a) Ordinary:

What we just learned

(b) Emphasis

An féin after the verb

(c) Contrast

Use the object form of the correct pronoun

(d) Contrast + emphasis:

Use everything basically. "Dún thusa thú féin é" = you yourself close it

3. Use of the definite article with numbers

An t-aon x amháin
An dá (despite it being dhá)

after that the numbers say the same, and you use na - na trí fhuinneoig'

4. Use of adjectives after numbers

after 'aon' use it as normal. After the rest of the numbers (2-10) you use the plural with lenition, regardless of the noun form.

5. Use of ceann with numbers

If something has already been mentioned, you can substiute in 'ceann' without needing to reuse the noun (though some noun --must-- be used; you can't just say "Dhá" without a noun for 'two')
Learning Irish 4 Nov, 16:20
Dan repost: miseds

1. The copula Is

(i-iii) Usage, Definite Noun as subject, é and í as subject

As mentioned in the book, it's generally used to link two nouns or a noun and a pronoun. So you wouldn't use it to say "I am hot" because you're linking a pronoun and an adjective. But you would use it to say "She is a woman", because you're linking a pronoun and an adjective.

As to how to form it, I'll just copy what I've seen on Duolingo several times:

V = verb
A = Indefinite nouns
N = Names
T = Definite nouns
P = Pronouns

That's your general order. If you use a definite noun, a proper noun, or a name, you need to include the pronoun (é, í, iad, srl - note, after ní, these prefix an "h") before the first one.

In the sentence 'the spider is an arachnid' you have and indefinite noun (araicnid) and a definite noun (an damhán alla). So, putting these in order (A before T), you get Is araicnid an damhán alla. However, you need the pronoun before the definite noun. Since damhán alla is feminine, you use í. This giving you Is araicnid í an damhán alla.

In 'Pól is the president of Ireland' you have a name (Pól) and a definite noun (uachtarán na hÉireann). So, putting those together, you get Is Pól uachtarán na hÉireann. Yet, you still need that pronoun. Is é Pól uachtarán na hÉireann.

(iv-v) Table of forms

Just look at the tables here.

(vi) Answers

Since he talked about definite noun phrases, that's what we'll still with answering. You basically repeat the pronoun with 'is', adjusted for correct person; this is never contrastive.

*Ab é an fear é* -- *Ní hé*
*Ar thusa an múinteoir* -- Is mé

(vii) Omission of the copula

Read his rules, but "Is" is often omitted in speech.

2. Use of the copula with adjective

(i) Certain adjectives

There's just a few adjectives that require "is". "Ionann" is one of these.

(ii) Exclamatory use

This is something I admit I was wrong about before, but the copula can be used with a limited number of adjectives for exclamatory use.

3. Numbers

These numbers must always have a noun with them. 2-6 lenite, and 7-10 cause eclipse. Generally the singular is used after a number, though see his list and notes for some exceptions to that. Perhaps the two most common exceptions are cinn and bliana, where cinn is used as a generic -- in Irish, to say "I have three", you have to say "Tá trí cinn 'am' -- and 'bliana' is, of course, used with age.
Learning Irish 2 Nov, 15:17
Dan repost: miseds

1. If-clauses to express a condition

(i) Positive

Here we use dhá (dá) in the standard. It is followed by the conditional as well, and eclipses.

Dhá mbeadh tú anseo, ní bheadh sise ansin.

(ii) Negative:

Once again, we have -mara-. It causes eclipses as well.

These can be translated as "if ... were" or "if ... had been" or even as "if ... should be" or "if ... shoudl have been" depending on context. Something to note: If I had been there and if I were there are both the same. Dhá mbeadh mé ansin.

2. Possessive Adjectives

(i) See the forms. Note that "do" becomes t' when before a vowel, even though in the standard it is written as d'. Pretty sure this happens in every dialect. Also note that ar, and 'ur (bhur) are pronounced as the schwa, making them the same as (his, her, their). And check out contrastives are formed.

Unlike English, Irish does not use word stress. Sadly, I got drowned out once when I was telling someone that, no, natives speakers won't say -mo- athair, with stress on -mo-.

(ii) Pronunciation

Already touched upon this. Just read it and note the bit with the Caighdeán.

(iii) Mo, do, a (his) lenite; ar, 'ur, and a (their) eclipse. a (hers) puts an h-prefix before a vowel

a úlla - his apple
a húlla - her apple
a n-úlla - their apple

a bhord -- his table
a bord -- her table
a mbord -- Their table

(iv) Use with seo, sin, siúd:

Again, ust to express 'this/that person'

(v) Once again to express 'own'

(vi) Use of cuid

Here we go. This is a fun topic. So, unlike what some people will tell you, *cuid* is used before plural nouns *a gcuid leabhartha*, mass nouns - *a cuid uisce*, and abstract nouns *do chuid Béarla*. This is something way too often forgotten by learners and people.

One thing to note here: O'Siadhail mentions: It is, however, generally omitted where the noun in question 'inalienably' belongs to the possessor, e.g. 'mo chosa'.

I have found this to only be partially true. There is certainly a tendency in Connemara Theas to use cuid with ***all** plurals. I asked my teacher about it, and he even said O'Siadhail's example is weird, and that he'd prefer *mo chuid cosa*. I feel Seán could confirm this.

Basically, when in doubt, use *cuid* with plurals!

(a) Use in contrast with "féin"

Just see the examples. Means about the same as "fén" in the previous section.

(a) Before a noun in the genitive relation

Again, just seee the example.

3. Use of ceann/cuid to express 'mine', 'yours', etc.

*Ceann* can mean 'one' (As the one in: Oh, did you bake a cake? Yes, I made one. -- Oh, an ndearna tú cáca? Rinne mé ceann amháin).

Here, it can be used for singular 'yours' when working with contrastives. It becomes 'ceannsa". IThis is only singular. If it becomes plural, you use 'cuidse' instead.
Learning Irish 2 Nov, 15:16
Dan repost: miseds

1. Plural of definite article.

The plural of the definite article is . It's unstressed and used with all nouns in the plural. If a noun starting with a vowel follows it, you add .

na máthaireachaí
na haithaireachaí

2. Disjunctive pronouns

(i) Usage: Basically, when used as an object, these pronmial forms are used. They're also used for the copula, which will be explained later.

Tú = thú
Sé = é
Sí = í
Siad = iad

The contrastive/emphatic forms are shown as well in the book.

(ii) Word Order:
Read here and just look at samples. Object pronouns in Irish are actually pretty free moving, but they sound more natural at the end of the clause.

3. Use of "féin" (self)

(i) Emphasis: It can be used for emphasis. "Tá mé féin go dona' (--I-- am bad). This is something I see learners miss often, thinking that they can just stress the word as English does for emphasis.

It can be used for emphasis after a contrastive form or after a noun. See the samples. Similar to saying "Are you yourself well?"

(iii) Reflexive use:

It's basically like the 'xself' in English. "Cloisim mé féin" - I hear myself.

4. Compound Subject or Object.

Just read the notes here about when to use what and what order.

5. The adjectives *seo*, *sin*, *úd/siúd*

(i) Use with nouns
These correspond to determiners in English. The definite article is used with them - An bhean sin -- That woman. They correspond to "anseo", "ansin" and "ansiúd", though "úd" is more natural after a noun, over "siúd". The correspondence is like "this", "that", and "that" (further away).

(ii) With third person

Just look at the examples here to see them used as a subject. These are very common forms in speech.