1. Future Tense of the Regular Verb
(i) Form used with noun or pronoun (corresponding to beidh)
So this is the most basic type of verb for the future tense. It expresses “will x” by itself, nothing too complicated.
There are two types of verbs in Irish, those with one syllable and those with two syllables. We’ll start with one syllable verbs, as they’re easier, in my opinion.
To form the future tense of these verbs, called first conjugation in many texts, you just add -f(a)idh. The -faidh form is used when the verb ends with a broad consonant, the -fidh form when it ends with a slender one. Some examples:
If you have a verb that ends with -igh in this status, you drop the -gh and add the endings.
Now, on to the second one. These are generally verbs that are two syllables. I would say it wouldn’t be unfair to say most of these end with –(a)igh. So how do you form the future tense of those? Well, for the ones that end with –(a)igh, you drop it then add the proper ending: -óidh or -eoidh based on whether it ends with a broad (first ending) or slender (second) consonant.
However, some are two syllables that don’t end with –(a)igh. Generally these verbs are similar to oscail and imir. In these, you drop the final vowel(s) and make them a single syllable. Then you add the ending
oscail = oscl + óidh = osclóidh
imir = imr + eoidh = imreoidh
(ii) Autonomous form
Thankfully these aren’t hard. For first type, you just use -f(e)ar, while for the second you use -ófar or eofar.
(iii) Pronunciation of verbs with roots ending in b, d, g, bh, mh
So the thing to learn here is that the “f” in the future tense devoices the proceeding consonant. So a sounds like /t/, comes like /p/. and both come to /f/.
So goidfidh would be pronounced like it was written goitfidh.
(iv) Direct relative
So Connacht Irish (and Donegal Irish) has a direct relative form for the future as well. It’s pretty easy. In type one verbs you just add –f(e)as. For type 2, you add -ós or -eos. This holds true in Donegal as well as in Connacht. In Munster you use the normal form of the future tense.
2. The preposition faoi
It means ‘under’ in the most basic sense, and causes lenition. Tá sé faoi chathaoir = It is under a chair
(ii) Prepositional pronouns
So, same as usual. I’ll use the original forms and the Connacht ones in parentheses where they differ
Contrast forms are the same as the other prepositions we’ve covered.
(iii) Meaning of faoi
The general base meaning. It has some others though
b. to express intent
So you can use faoi to express intent. Tá fúm filleadh ar Éirinn – I intend to return to Ireland. Tá fúithi gasúr a thogadh – She intends to raise a kid
c. (with bualadh) to express impact
Tá sé ag bualadh fúm – It is hitting against me.
d. To express motion (in certain phrases)
See the ones in the book. Mainly Tá siúl faoi (He is going fast), tá fuadar faoi (He is in a hurry), tá fás faoi (It is growing)
e. in some adverbial phrase
Again, just see the book. Examples include faoi smacht, faoi bhláth, faoi lántseol, faoi bhealach
(iv) Secondary meaning ‘around, about’
In Connemara especially, faoi has taken over the function of the preposition um. This is particularly true in Connacht and Donegal, though I think Munster still often uses um.
Tá mé ag caint fút = I am talking about you
Tá sé ag magadh fuithi = He is joking with her
Also used in some adverbial phrases to mean ‘around’ or ‘by’, etc. Examples include faoi Nollaig, faoi Cháisc, faoi Bhealtaine, faoi Shamhain, faoi seo, faoi láthair, faoi dheireadh, faoin tuath/tír
3. The preposition go (dtí)
So this is a way to say ‘to’ in expressing motion. Tá mé ag dul go hÉirinn. go dtí is used with definite nouns, whereas go is used with place names without an article (it prefixes an h to vowels) – go hAlbain. It can be used in adverbial phrases too, go maidin, lán go béal, etc.