Critical thinking

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Critical thinking 14 Jul, 14:00
Benefits of Online Psychotherapy

Remote communication between therapists and clients is not a new concept. Sigmund Freud used letters to communicate with his patients, while self-help groups started emerging on the internet as early as in 1982.

The goal of online therapy is to provide mental health support to as many people as possible. Online sessions are more affordable and accessible, yet they improve the quality of life just as well as in-person therapy. If you are committed to making the most out of your therapy time, it can become a rewarding experience with long-term benefits.

With online therapy platform www.Tokitus.com users have the ability to connect with professionals that are not necessarily in their geographical area. Therapists on the platform are bound by strict laws and contracts. Counselling sessions are protected an encrypted. With the increased privacy and anonymity inherent to online counselling, clients avoid the “stigmatized awkwardness” of entering the therapist’s office for the first time and/or running into someone they know in the therapist’s waiting room. People that have busy schedule can receive help 24/7, even while they are on-the-go. TOKITUS is a global community, that offers 15 different therapy languages. You can start conversation with a trained professional have a free introductory video-session online.

Try online psychotherapy at www.tokitus.com

Benefits:
• Being in an environment that client/patient finds comfortable (at home; in a park; in your car; during the holiday trip).
• Avoiding the “stigmatized awkwardness” of entering the therapist’s office for the first time.
• Saving time of traveling to the therapist office.
• Getting a broader spectrum of therapy hours.
• Keeping therapy sessions securely encrypted and confidential.
• Going beyond geographical boarders.
• Continuing support even during the pandemic.

Schedule a free 15 minute online therpay session at www.tokitus.com
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Critical thinking 12 Jun, 13:16
The Normalcy Bias
(reading time – 30 sec.)

The belief that things will continue to function in the future as it has always function in the past.

It’s leading us to underestimate the probability of a disaster occurring and its potential effects. The normalcy bias causes people to refuse to plan or react to disasters that they have never faced before.

For example Donald Trump said:
“By April, when it gets a little warmer, it miraculously goes away”.

But it’s already June and you see its consequences

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: medium.com
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Critical thinking 22 May, 13:00
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Critical thinking 28 Mar, 13:00
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Critical thinking 24 Mar, 07:58
Order effects
(reading time – 1 min.)

We tend to focus on first-order effects, not second- or third-order effects – If I wreck my car, I’m most likely to be upset about my wrecked car (first-order effect), not how I’m going to pick up my kids from school each day or how higher insurance premiums will affect my monthly budget (second-order effects), even though the second- and third-order effects will have a bigger impact on my life than the damaged car.

Much of the analysis on coronavirus stops at the first-order effects. “Stay healthy, wash your hands, you’re going to be fine.” But the second and third-order effects of this could potentially be quite large. Just one example: the US healthcare system is utterly broken. Roughly 60% of Americans can’t afford to pay for an unexpected emergency and 10% of Americans don’t have health insurance at all.

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: markmanson.net
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Critical thinking 4 Feb, 23:21
The Fundamental Attribution Error
(reading time – 1 min.)

The Fundamental Attribution Error is similar to the Self-Serving Bias, in that we look for contextual excuses for our failures, but generally blame other people or their characteristics for their failures. It also may stem from the Availability Heuristic in that we make judgments based only on the information we have available at hand.

One of the best textbook examples of this integrates stereotyping: Imagine you are driving behind another car. The other driver is swerving a bit and unpredictably starts speeding up and slowing down. You decide to overtake them (so as to no longer be stuck behind such a dangerous driver) and as you look over, you see a female behind the wheel. The Fundamental Attribution Error kicks in when you make the judgment that their driving is poor because they’re a woman (also tying on to an unfounded stereotype). But what you probably don’t know is that the other driver has three children yelling and goofing around in the backseat, while she’s trying to get one to soccer, one to dance and the other to a piano lesson. She’s had a particularly tough day and now she’s running late with all of the kids because she couldn’t leave work at the normal time. If we were that driver, we’d judge ourselves as driving poorly because of these reasons, not because of who we are.

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: www.psychologytoday.com
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Critical thinking 22 Dec 2019, 23:57
Backfire Effect
(reading time – 1 min.)

The effect is claimed to be that when, in the face of contradictory evidence, established beliefs do not change but actually get stronger.

This happens for example when corporations know that they are doing something that is harmful but nonetheless promote denialism.

The corporation can even publicly admit that their product is harmful while simultaneously covertly funding astroturf groups that promote the denialist message. Examples of this coverup behavior include the asbestos industry, the tobacco industry, the sugar industry, and the fossil fuel industry with regard to global warming.

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: rationalwiki.org
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Critical thinking 23 Oct 2019, 15:11
Complexity bias
(reading time – 1 min.)

Complexity bias is the belief that complex solutions are better than simple ones.
The term denotes an irrational preference for complexity over simple approaches that are faster, cheaper and safer.

The following are common examples:

Jargon
The assumption that someone knows what they are talking about because they use obscure terminology and big words.

Math
The assumption that complex math must be accurate and more valuable than a qualitative insight.

Software
A preference for highly complex software to satisfy requirements that are comparatively simple.

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: simplicable.com
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Critical thinking 22 Sep 2019, 17:18
Begging The Question
(reading time – 1 min.)

You presented a circular argument in which the conclusion was included in the premise.

This logically incoherent argument often arises in situations where people have an assumption that is very ingrained, and therefore taken in their minds as a given. Circular reasoning is bad mostly because it's not very good.

Example: The word of Zorbo the Great is flawless and perfect. We know this because it says so in The Great and Infallible Book of Zorbo's Best and Most Truest Things that are Definitely True and Should Not Ever Be Questioned.

Topic: #LogicalFallacy
Source: yourlogicalfallacyis.com
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Critical thinking 22 Aug 2019, 19:59
Critical thinking 11 Aug 2019, 22:24
Scarcity bias
(reading time – 1 min.)

The more difficult it is to acquire an item the more value that item has. When there is only a limited number of items available. The rarer the opportunity, the more valuable it is.

People assume that things that are difficult to obtain are usually better than those that are easily available. They link availability to quality. On “Black Friday”, more than getting a bargain on a hot item, shoppers thrive on the competition itself, in obtaining the scarce product.

In a famous study, one group of participants were given a jar with ten cookies, a second group was given two cookies, and a third group was initially given ten cookies, which were then reduced to two cookies. when asked the participants to rate their cookies, the third group rated their cookies the highest.

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: Wikipedia
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Critical thinking 6 Jul 2019, 17:58
Band Wagon Effect
(reading time – 40 sec.)

Band Wagon Effect is a cognitive bias which explains the impulse to choose certain option or follow particular behaviour, because other people are doing it. This leads to a dangerous cycle, as more people continue to follow a trend makes it more likely that other people hop on the band wagon.

For example, people might buy a new electronic item because of its popularity, regardless of whether they need it, can afford it or even really want it.

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: investopedia.com
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Critical thinking 21 Jun 2019, 16:04
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Critical thinking 19 Jun 2019, 19:05
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Critical thinking 31 May 2019, 20:10
Groupthink
(reading time – 1 min.)

Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs when decisions are made due to the unified nature of decision-makers. It happens when the decision-makers strive for unanimity, and this overrides their motivation to consider alternative views. As a result, independent thinking is lost.

As an example consider the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Many of the senior officers at Pearl Harbor did not take warnings from Washington DC about potential invasion seriously despite the fact that Japanese messages had been intercepted. Those who didn't take action believed that the Japanese wouldn't dare to attempt an assault against the U.S. because they would recognize the futility of war with the United States.

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: Wikipedia
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Critical thinking 27 Apr 2019, 14:26
Attentional bias
(reading time – 40 sec.)

Attentional bias is the tendency for people's perception to be affected by their recurring thoughts at the time.

For example, smokers tend to possess a bias for cigarettes and other smoking-related cues around them, due to the positive thoughts they've already attributed between smoking and the cues they were exposed to while smoking.

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: Wikipedia
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Critical thinking 30 Mar 2019, 18:00
Base Rate Fallacy
(reading time – 50 sec.)

Base rate neglect is the tendency for people to mistakenly judge the likelihood of a situation by not taking into account all relevant data.

Lots of food companies exploit the Base Rate Fallacy on their packaging. When something says "50% extra free," only a third (33%) of what you're looking at is free. If you think half of what you're looking at is free, then you've committed the Base Rate Fallacy. For example, when you buy six cans of Coke labelled "50% extra free," only two of the cans are free, not three. (It's because the original pack had four cans, and 50% of the original amount is two cans.)

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: howtogetyourownway.com
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Critical thinking 15 Mar 2019, 20:05
Illusory correlation
(reading time – 40 sec.)

In psychology, illusory correlation is the phenomenon of perceiving a relationship between variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such relationship exists.

This, for exmaple, can occur when people judge whether two events, such as pain and bad weather, are correlated. They rely heavily on the relatively small number of cases where the two events occur together. People pay relatively little attention to the other kinds of observation (of no pain or good weather)

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: Wikipedia
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Critical thinking 13 Mar 2019, 18:51
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Critical thinking 16 Feb 2019, 18:52
Projection bias
(reading time – 45 sec.)

In behavioral economics, projection bias refers to people’s assumption that their tastes or preferences will remain the same over time.

We may have learned from experience not to go to the supermarket when we are hungry – we tend to buy all kinds of junk that we don’t normally eat or want to eat, and not only is our bill higher than normal but we also end up with stuff we don’t consume or don’t want to consume. This happens because at the time of shopping we incorrectly anticipate that our future hunger will be as great as it is now.

Topic: #CognitiveBiases
Source: Wikipedia
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